This is an explanation of the theme of vows for you that includes the types and basic laws that are useful for you and other readers, inshaallah.
Asfahani rahimahullah in 'Mufrodat Alfadul Qur'an, p. 797 says, "Nazar is obliging that which is not obligatory to yourself because of an incident. Allah Ta'ala said:
"Verily, I have vowed to fast for God the most gracious." QS. Maryam: 26.
So vows are obliging mukalaf (people who are subject to the burden of obligation) to themselves who are not obliged to it. Either directly or hanging. It has been mentioned in the Book of Allah on the position of flattery. Allah Ta'ala said regarding His servants the believers:
“Surely those who do good things drink from a glass (containing a drink) whose mixture is kafur water. (namely) the spring (in heaven) from which the servants of Allah drink, which they can best drain. They fulfill their vows and are afraid of a day where the punishment will be evenly distributed. " QS. Al-Insan: 5-7
So Allah -Tabaroka wata'ala- made their fear of the urgency of the Day of Judgment and the fulfillment of vows as one of the reasons for salvation and entry to heaven.
Fulfilling the vows is a stated obligation. Based on the word Ta'ala:
"Then, let them remove the dirt that is on their bodies and let them complete their vows." QS. Al-Hajj: 29
Imam Syaukani rahimahullah said, "Orders show an obligation. There have been many hadiths from the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, the prohibition of making vows and explanations of their holiness.
From Abu Hurairah radhiallahu anhu said the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said:
"Don't all of you make vows, because vows do not affect destiny at all. In fact he came out of the naughtiness. " HR. Muslim no. 3096
From Abdullah bin Umar radhiallahu anhuma said, "Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam began to prohibit us from making vows while saying:
"Indeed, he (vows) cannot refuse at all. In fact he is thrown out of stinginess. " HR. Bukhori and Muslim
If someone says, 'How are people praised by performing their vows, then they are prohibited. The vows that should be praised are those of obedience without being hung on something. Where a person requires himself to obey and hinders laziness or gratitude for enjoyment.
Meanwhile, there are many kinds of vows that are prohibited, including substitute vows, where people vow in obedience when they get something or reject something. If it is not found, there is no obedience. This is what is forbidden. Perhaps the wisdom of prohibiting this is because of the following reasons:
The voters observe heavy obedience. When it occurs in difficult conditions and requires doing something. When vows do vow obedience on condition if what is desired is achieved. So that the vows are like substitutes that can injure intentions in obedience. Because if he does not recover from his illness, he will not give charity because he is dependent on his recovery. This is the condition of being stingy. Because he did not spend any of his property except by direct replacement. Usually more than what he puts out.
Some people have an ignorant belief, the idea is that vows must get in accordance with the purpose for which they are doing. Or God will realize the goal of the person who vows because of his vows. Eliminating belief in some common people. Where in the end that vows can reject destiny. Or get immediate benefit or turn away from evil. So it is forbidden to worry about the belief of the layman about it. As well as warning the dangers of such methods against the safety of aqeedah.
Kinds of vows in terms of obligation to fulfill them:
NazarNazar must be carried out (Nazar Ketaatan), namely all vows in obedience to Allah Azza Wajallah such as prayer, fasting, Umrah, Hajj, silaturrohim, I'tikaf, jihad, prompting goodness and prohibiting evil as he says' By Allah it is obligatory for me to fast or give alms like this or by Allah, it is obligatory for me to perform this year's Hajj or pray two rak'ahs at the Grand Mosque as gratitude to Allah for the blessings of healing from my illness.
Or hanging like a vow to obey Allah hanging with something useful if that happens so that he says, 'If someone who is lost is found or if Allah hinders the ugliness of the enemy from me, then I will fast or give alms like this. The Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said:
"Whoever vows obedience to God, he should do obedience. And whoever has the vow to commit immorality, then do not commit immorality. HR. Bukhori, 6202
If a person vows to do obedience then there are conditions that prevent him from fulfilling it, such as vowing to fast for a month or performing the Haj or Umrah. However, suffering from an illness that prevents him from fulfilling his fast, Hajj, Umrah or vowing to give alms, but becomes poor which prevents him from fulfilling his vows. So in this condition, moving to redeem vows with a ransom (kaffarah) oath. As it is from Ibn Abbas radhiallahu anhuma said:
"Whoever has a vow and is unable (to fulfill it), then redeems with a ransom (kaffarah) of oath. HR. Abu Dawud, Hafidz Ibn Hajar commented in Bulugul Maram that the sanad was shoheh and Hafidz strengthened the status up to the companions of the Prophet (waqf).
Syeikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in Fatawa (33/49) said, "If a person vows to obey because of Allah, then he must fulfill it. However, if he does not fulfill the vows because of Allah, then he must redeem it with an oath according to the majority of salaf scholars.
Nazar which cannot be kept and there is a kaffarah (ransom) oath. Included in this form of vows are
"Whoever has the vow to obey God, he should do it. And whoever vows to act against him, then don't do it. " HR. Bukhori.
From Imron bin Husain, in fact the Prophet sallallahu alai wa sallam differs:
"It is not allowed to fulfill vows in immorality. “HR. Muslim, 3099.
"I was with Ibn Umar and someone asked him saying," I vow to fast every Tuesday or Wednesday as long as I am alive. It turned out that that day coincided with the day of nahr (Eid al-adha), so he replied, "Allah has ordered to fulfill the vows and forbid us to fast on the day of nahr (Eid al-adha). He repeated it and he said the same without any additions. Shoheh Bukhori, 6212.
Narrated Imam Ahmad from Ziyad bin Jubair said, someone asked Ibn Umar when he was walking on Mina. While saying, “I vow to fast every Tuesday or Wednesday. This day coincides with the nahr day (Eid al-Adha), what do you think ?. then he replied, "Allah Ta'ala ordered to fulfill the vows and Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam prohibited or said we are prohibited from fasting on the day of nahr. Said, someone thought he didn't hear. So he said, “I vow to fast every Tuesday or Wednesday. The day coincides with the nahr day. So he replied, "Allah ordered to fulfill the vows while Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam forbade us or we are prohibited from fasting on the day of nahr. Said, he did not add any of it to leaning against the mountain. Hafid Ibn Hajar said, "There has been an ijma 'that it is not permissible to fast either sunnah or vows on Eid al-firti as well as Eid al-adha.
"Vows ransom is an oath ransom. HR. Muslim
Nawawi rahimahullah said, "Malik and the majority of scholars understand for general vows like what he said I vowed. Syarkh Muslim by Nawawi, (11/104).
"A person vowed in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam to slaughter a camel in Buwanah - in another editorial - because he had a son, he went to the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam and said," I actually vowed to slaughter camels in Buwanah. So the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam asked, "Is there a statue of jahiliyah that is worshiped? they replied, "No. Is there their celebration there? They replied, "No. So the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, "Perform your vows, because it is not permissible to carry out vows in the context of disobedience to Allah and what Bani Adam does not. HR. Abu Dawud, 2881.
This person vowed to slaughter a camel at Buwanah (the place behind Yanbuk) because he gave thanks to Allah Ta'ala. Because blessed with a son. So the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam allowed him to fulfill his vows. And slaughter a camel in that place.
We ask Allah to knowfiq as he loves and blesses. Best wishes and greetings to our Prophet Muhammad.