In language, the meaning of 'vows' is a promise to do good or bad things. In Islam, Nazar means a person's ability to perform a form of worship which is not a compulsory form of worship. Nazar is not valid if it promises mandatory, permissible, makruh, let alone haram.
Practice with the law of the sunnah or fardhu kifayah which can be used as vows. For example fasting or giving alms. By performing vows, worship which initially has the sunnah or fardhu kifayah law becomes mandatory for that person. Almsgiving or sunnah fasting that previously should not be done, after becoming a vow, should not be abandoned.
Nazar will be valid if the vows contain certainty to do something. For example, "I vow to fast David", or "If I get a profit of Rp. 1 billion, I will give Rp. 100 million in charity". Lafaz which does not contain abilities cannot be called vows. For example, if the votive sentence still contains the word "maybe" or "could be".
Nazar Must Be Perfected
Islam allows us to make vows. Worship, which was not obligatory at first, becomes obligatory if someone has vowed. Allah praises those who fulfill their vows. Allah said, "And let them complete their vows." (QS.Al Hajj: 29). "They fulfill their vows and are afraid of a day where the punishment will be evenly distributed." (QS.Al Insan: 7).
In the past, Sahabat Umar bin Khatab was also ordered by the Prophet to fulfill his vows. When the Prophet's entourage returned from Taef and arrived at Ji'ronah, Umar bin Khattab said to the Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, in fact I had vowed during the time of ignorance to do itikaf a day at the Grand Mosque, what do you think?". Rasulullah replied, "Go there and give i'tikaflah".
Understanding Nazar Fast
summarizes that one of the practices that is usually insulted is fasting. Vowing to fast is permissible, because we can vow to obey God.
Nazar fast is a fast that must be done by someone according to what he is doing. Aisyah ra said that the Messenger of Allah said, "Whoever has the vow to obey Allah, let him obey Him and whoever vows to sin against Allah, then he should not sin against Him" (Narrated by Bukhari).
Kinds of Nazar
1. Nazar Lajjaj
Nazar Lajjaj is a vow whose purpose is to motivate someone to do something, or prevent someone from doing something, or to believe the truth of the news someone has conveyed. An example of lajjaj vows is when a person vows to fast for ten days if he does not memorize a book for five days. This Nazar is pronounced in order to motivate yourself to do practice (in this example, menghatkan book).
Another example is a vow that motivates something to do, when a person promises to fast for ten days if he makes a habit of talking about other people's badness. While examples of vows that aim to convince others about the truth of the news, for example when someone promises to give alms of Rp. 500,000 if what he says is not true. The hope is, people who receive the news believe the truth of the news it carries.
2. Nazar Tabarrur
Nazar tabarrur is when someone undertakes to perform a worship without depending on something, or depending on worship on something that is expected. An example is when someone vows to donate IDR 500,000. So if he already has such an amount of money, it is obligatory for him to donate the money. However, the obligation to donate it is broad, so it is not obligatory to immediately donate the money. If you do not have the belief that you will not have that amount of money, then the vows can be fulfilled at any time. On the other hand, if he believes that he will no longer have that much money, then the vows must be fulfilled, before the money is used for other purposes.
Another example of vows in tabarrur is one that is accompanied by depending on something that is hoped for. For example, when a person has a vow, he will fast for ten days if Allah grants his wish to meet the person he dreams of. If his wish is fulfilled, then it is obligatory for him to fulfill this vow.
Better Avoid Nazar
Even though Nazar is allowed, we should not easily take vows. Rasulullah explained that the real vows cannot reject something at all. The friend of Ibn Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah forbade vows, he said: 'Nazar cannot reject something at all. Nazar is only expelled from people who are hunks (stingy) '”(Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)
Meanwhile, Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet said, "Don't make vows. Because vows cannot reject fate in the slightest. Nazar is only expelled from a stingy person ”(Narrated by Muslim).
"Really vows do not make someone closer to what Allah does not ordain. The results of the vows are what Allah ordained. Nazar is only issued by a miser. The person who has a vow is taking out a treasure that he really doesn't want to spend. "(Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).
The scholars explained that the purpose of this hadith is that people who have vows are actually not doing sincere acts because of Allah. He only wants to do good if he gets benefits. Therefore, a person who vows on condition is called a stingy person.
Nazar which is permissible and not subject to conflict is when a person vows unconditionally. For example, someone promises to carry out a certain fast, without requiring anything. The prohibition of vows is also intended so that people do not think that Allah will fulfill their wishes with vows. In fact, vows do not change anything at all, as mentioned in the hadith above.
Summary of Laws and types of vow
This is an explanation of the theme of vows for you that includes the types and basic laws that are useful for you and other readers, inshaallah.
Asfahani rahimahullah in 'Mufrodat Alfadul Qur'an, p. 797 says, "Nazar is obliging that which is not obligatory to yourself because of an incident. Allah Ta'ala said:
"Verily, I have vowed to fast for God the most gracious." QS. Maryam: 26.
So vows are obliging mukalaf (people who are subject to the burden of obligation) to themselves who are not obliged to it. Either directly or hanging. It has been mentioned in the Book of Allah on the position of flattery. Allah Ta'ala said regarding His servants the believers:
“Surely those who do good things drink from a glass (containing a drink) whose mixture is kafur water. (namely) the spring (in heaven) from which the servants of Allah drink, which they can best drain. They fulfill their vows and are afraid of a day where the punishment will be evenly distributed. " QS. Al-Insan: 5-7
So Allah -Tabaroka wata'ala- made their fear of the urgency of the Day of Judgment and the fulfillment of vows as one of the reasons for salvation and entry to heaven.
Fulfilling the vows is a stated obligation. Based on the word Ta'ala:
"Then, let them remove the dirt that is on their bodies and let them complete their vows." QS. Al-Hajj: 29
Imam Syaukani rahimahullah said, "Orders show an obligation. There have been many hadiths from the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, the prohibition of making vows and explanations of their holiness.
From Abu Hurairah radhiallahu anhu said the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said:
"Don't all of you make vows, because vows do not affect destiny at all. In fact he came out of the naughtiness. " HR. Muslim no. 3096
From Abdullah bin Umar radhiallahu anhuma said, "Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam began to prohibit us from making vows while saying:
"Indeed, he (vows) cannot refuse at all. In fact he is thrown out of stinginess. " HR. Bukhori and Muslim
If someone says, 'How are people praised by performing their vows, then they are prohibited. The vows that should be praised are those of obedience without being hung on something. Where a person requires himself to obey and hinders laziness or gratitude for enjoyment.
Meanwhile, there are many kinds of vows that are prohibited, including substitute vows, where people vow in obedience when they get something or reject something. If it is not found, there is no obedience. This is what is forbidden. Perhaps the wisdom of prohibiting this is because of the following reasons:
The voters observe heavy obedience. When it occurs in difficult conditions and requires doing something. When vows do vow obedience on condition if what is desired is achieved. So that the vows are like substitutes that can injure intentions in obedience. Because if he does not recover from his illness, he will not give charity because he is dependent on his recovery. This is the condition of being stingy. Because he did not spend any of his property except by direct replacement. Usually more than what he puts out.
Some people have an ignorant belief, the idea is that vows must get in accordance with the purpose for which they are doing. Or God will realize the goal of the person who vows because of his vows. Eliminating belief in some common people. Where in the end that vows can reject destiny. Or get immediate benefit or turn away from evil. So it is forbidden to worry about the belief of the layman about it. As well as warning the dangers of such methods against the safety of aqeedah.
Kinds of vows in terms of obligation to fulfill them:
NazarNazar must be carried out (Nazar Ketaatan), namely all vows in obedience to Allah Azza Wajallah such as prayer, fasting, Umrah, Hajj, silaturrohim, I'tikaf, jihad, prompting goodness and prohibiting evil as he says' By Allah it is obligatory for me to fast or give alms like this or by Allah, it is obligatory for me to perform this year's Hajj or pray two rak'ahs at the Grand Mosque as gratitude to Allah for the blessings of healing from my illness.
Or hanging like a vow to obey Allah hanging with something useful if that happens so that he says, 'If someone who is lost is found or if Allah hinders the ugliness of the enemy from me, then I will fast or give alms like this. The Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said:
"Whoever vows obedience to God, he should do obedience. And whoever has the vow to commit immorality, then do not commit immorality. HR. Bukhori, 6202
If a person vows to do obedience then there are conditions that prevent him from fulfilling it, such as vowing to fast for a month or performing the Haj or Umrah. However, suffering from an illness that prevents him from fulfilling his fast, Hajj, Umrah or vowing to give alms, but becomes poor which prevents him from fulfilling his vows. So in this condition, moving to redeem vows with a ransom (kaffarah) oath. As it is from Ibn Abbas radhiallahu anhuma said:
"Whoever has a vow and is unable (to fulfill it), then redeems with a ransom (kaffarah) of oath. HR. Abu Dawud, Hafidz Ibn Hajar commented in Bulugul Maram that the sanad was shoheh and Hafidz strengthened the status up to the companions of the Prophet (waqf).
Syeikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in Fatawa (33/49) said, "If a person vows to obey because of Allah, then he must fulfill it. However, if he does not fulfill the vows because of Allah, then he must redeem it with an oath according to the majority of salaf scholars.
Nazar which cannot be kept and there is a kaffarah (ransom) oath. Included in this form of vows are
"Whoever has the vow to obey God, he should do it. And whoever vows to act against him, then don't do it. " HR. Bukhori.
From Imron bin Husain, in fact the Prophet sallallahu alai wa sallam differs:
"It is not allowed to fulfill vows in immorality. “HR. Muslim, 3099.
"I was with Ibn Umar and someone asked him saying," I vow to fast every Tuesday or Wednesday as long as I am alive. It turned out that that day coincided with the day of nahr (Eid al-adha), so he replied, "Allah has ordered to fulfill the vows and forbid us to fast on the day of nahr (Eid al-adha). He repeated it and he said the same without any additions. Shoheh Bukhori, 6212.
Narrated Imam Ahmad from Ziyad bin Jubair said, someone asked Ibn Umar when he was walking on Mina. While saying, “I vow to fast every Tuesday or Wednesday. This day coincides with the nahr day (Eid al-Adha), what do you think ?. then he replied, "Allah Ta'ala ordered to fulfill the vows and Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam prohibited or said we are prohibited from fasting on the day of nahr. Said, someone thought he didn't hear. So he said, “I vow to fast every Tuesday or Wednesday. The day coincides with the nahr day. So he replied, "Allah ordered to fulfill the vows while Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam forbade us or we are prohibited from fasting on the day of nahr. Said, he did not add any of it to leaning against the mountain. Hafid Ibn Hajar said, "There has been an ijma 'that it is not permissible to fast either sunnah or vows on Eid al-firti as well as Eid al-adha.
"Vows ransom is an oath ransom. HR. Muslim
Nawawi rahimahullah said, "Malik and the majority of scholars understand for general vows like what he said I vowed. Syarkh Muslim by Nawawi, (11/104).
"A person vowed in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam to slaughter a camel in Buwanah - in another editorial - because he had a son, he went to the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam and said," I actually vowed to slaughter camels in Buwanah. So the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam asked, "Is there a statue of jahiliyah that is worshiped? they replied, "No. Is there their celebration there? They replied, "No. So the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, "Perform your vows, because it is not permissible to carry out vows in the context of disobedience to Allah and what Bani Adam does not. HR. Abu Dawud, 2881.
This person vowed to slaughter a camel at Buwanah (the place behind Yanbuk) because he gave thanks to Allah Ta'ala. Because blessed with a son. So the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam allowed him to fulfill his vows. And slaughter a camel in that place.
We ask Allah to knowfiq as he loves and blesses. Best wishes and greetings to our Prophet Muhammad.