Complete Definition of Qurban
- Every 10th of Dzul Hijjah, all Muslims who do not perform Hajj celebrate Eid al-Adha. On that day, Muslims are highly worshiped to make qurban where they slaughter sacrificial animals to be distributed to all Muslims in an area. Then what exactly is Qurban? Below will be explained in full.
Qurban comes from Arabic, "Qurban "Which means near (قربان). Sacrifice in Islam also called al-udhhiyyahandadh-dhahiyyahwhich means animal slaughtered, such as camels, cows (buffalo), and goats that are slaughtered on Eid al-Adha and tasyriq days as a form of taqarrub or closer to Allah.
The proof of the Declaration of Sacrifice
Allah SWT has decreed sacrifice with His word, "Indeed, We have given you many favors. So establish prayers for your Lord, and make sacrifices. Indeed, it is those who hate you that are cut off.(Al-Kautsar: 1 - 3).
"And We have made camels for you as a message of Allah. You get a lot of good from it, so say the name of Allah when you slaughter it.(Al-Hajj: 36).
The Virtue of Sacrifice
From Aisyah ra, the Holy Prophet said, "There is not a single practice carried out by humans on the feast of the Sacrifice that Allah SWT loves more than slaughtering the sacrificial animals. Indeed, the animal that is sacrificed on the Day of Resurrection will come, with its horns, hair and hooves. And before the blood of the Sacrifice touches the ground, it (the reward) has been received in the sight of Allah, so lucky you all with (reward) of the Sacrifice.. " (HR Tirmidhi).
The Law of Sacrifice
Its legal sacrifice sunnah muakkadah(highly recommended sunnah). For a person who is able to do so and then he leaves it, he is punished as makruh. This is based on the hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim that the Prophet had sacrificed with two kibasy goats, both of which were blackish white and had horns. He himself slaughtered the sacrifice, and recited the name of Allah and took takbir (when cutting it).
From Umm Salamah ra, the Holy Prophet said, "And if you have seen the hilal (date) of the entry of the month of Dzul Hijjah, and one of you wants to sacrifice, then let him leave his hair and nails.. " HR Muslim
The meaning of the words of the Prophet, " want to sacrifice"Is the argument that this sacrifice is sunnah, not obligatory.
It was narrated from Abu Bakr and Umar that they both had never made a sacrifice for their families, because both were afraid that the sacrifice was considered obligatory.
The Wisdom of Sacrifice
Sacrificial worship is mandated by God to remember History of Eid Al Adha himself experienced by Prophet Ibrahim as and as an effort to provide convenience on the day of Eid, as said by the Prophet Muhammad, "These days are none other than the days of eating and drinking and making dhikr to Allah Azza wa Jalla. "
Animals Allowed for Sacrifice
The animals that are allowed for sacrifice are camels, cows (buffalo) and goats. For other than these three types are not allowed. Allah SWT said, "so that they will chant the name of Allah on the livestock which Allah has given them.(Al-Hajj: 34).
And it is considered adequate to sacrifice with a sheep that is half a year old, a Javanese goat that is one year old, a cow that is two years old, and a camel that is five years old, be it male or female. This is in accordance with the traditions below:
From Abu Hurairah ra said, I have heard Rasulullah SAW say, "The best sacrificial animal is a goat that is jadza '(powel / one year old)."(HR Ahmad and Tirmidhi).
From Uqbah bin Amir ra, I said, O Messenger of Allah, I have jadza ', Rasulullah SAW replied, "Sacrifice with it."(Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).
From Jabir ra, the Messenger of Allah said, "Do not sacrifice animals except those that are one year old and above, if it is difficult for you, then slaughter the sheep Jadza '."
Sacrifice with the Castrated Goat
It is okay to sacrifice with a castrated goat. Narrated by Ahmad from Abu Rafi ', that Rasulullah saw sacrificed with two kibasy goats, both of which were white mixed with black and again castrated. Because the meat is tastier and tastier.
Animals Not Allowed to Sacrifice
The conditions for the animal for sacrifice were the stars free from disgrace (defects). Therefore, it is not permissible to sacrifice with disgraceful animals as below: 1. Whose disease is clearly visible. 2. The blind and clearly visible blindness 3. Whose bone marrow is absent, because it is very thin.
Rasulullah SAW said, "There are four diseases in sacrificial animals for which the sacrifice is not sufficient. Namely the blind with visible blindness, and the very sick and sickly visible, the very lame, and the emaciated. " (HR Tirmidhi while saying this hadith is hasan sahih) 4. Those with defects, namely those whose ears or horns were mostly missing.
Apart from the five animals above, there are other animals that are not allowed for sacrifice, namely:
1. Hatma '(toothless front teeth, all of them) .2. Ashma '(whose horn skin is broken). 3. Umya '(blind) .4. Taula '(who forage on plantations, are not pastured). 5. Jarba '(who has a lot of scurvy).
Nor is it okay to sacrifice with animals that are silent, whose tail is cut off, which are pregnant, and where there is no part of their ears or most of their rump. According to the most valid in the Shafi'i school, it is insufficient for the buttocks / buttocks to be cut off, as well as those whose nipples are not there, due to the loss of some of the edible organs. Likewise, the tail is cut off. Imam Shafi'i said, "We don't get hadiths about teeth at all."
Time for Slaughtering Sacrificial Animals
For sacrifice, it is required not to be slaughtered after sunrise on the day of 'Eid al-Adha. After that, you can slaughter it on any day, including the Tasyrik days, either night or day. After three days there was no more time to slaughter him.
From al-Barra 'ra the Holy Prophet said, "In fact, the first time we do this today (Eid al-Adha) is we pray, then we go back and cut the sacrifice. Whoever does that means he will get our Sunnah. And whoever slaughtered before that, then the slaughter was none other than the meat he offered to his family which did not belong to the sacrificial service at all."
Abu Burdah said, "On the day of Nahar, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) preached before us, he said: 'Whoever prays according to our prayers and faces our Qibla, and worships in our way of worship, then he does not slaughter the qirban before he pray'. "
In another hadith, the Messenger of Allah said, "Whoever slaughtered before praying, actually he slaughtered for himself. And whoever slaughtered after the prayer and sermon, in fact he had perfected and he received the sunnah of the Muslims."(Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).
Join in the Sacrifice
In sacrificing, it is permissible to join if the sacrificial animal is a camel or cow (buffalo). Because, a cow (buffalo) or camel applies to seven people if they all intend to sacrifice and taqarrub to Allah SWT.
From Jabir ra said, "We slaughtered a sacrifice with the Prophet at Hudaibiyyah a camel for seven people, as well as a cow (buffalo)."(Reported by Muslim, Abu Daud, and Tirmidhi)
Distribution of Sacrificial Meat
It was prescribed for those who sacrificed to eat the sacrificial meat, presented it to their relatives, and gave it to the needy. Rasulullah saw said, "Eat and give food to (the poor) and keep it."
In this case the scholars say, what is afdhal is to eat one-third of the meat, give one-third of it and save one-third of it.
Sacrificial meat may be transported (transferred) even to other countries. However, it cannot be sold, nor the skin. And, not to give a butcher as a wage. Butchers are entitled to receive it as employee benefits. People who sacrifice can give charity and can take the sacrifice to be used (eaten).
According to Abu Hanifah, it is permissible to sell the skin and the money to be donated or buy useful items for the house.
The Sacrificer Slaughtered Himself
People who sacrifice who are good at slaughtering are sacrificed to slaughter their sacrificial animals themselves. When slaughtering is put down read, "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar, Allahumma haadza 'an? " (In the name of Allah and Allah is the Greatest, O Allah this sacrifice is from? [State his name]).
Because, Rasulullah saw slaughtered a goat and read, "Bismillahi wallahu Akbar, Allahumma haadza 'anni wa'an man lam yudhahhi min ummati."(Narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi).
If the person making the sacrifice is not good at slaughtering, he should attend and witness the slaughter.
From Abu Sa'id al-Khudri ra, the Messenger of Allah said, "O Fatimah, wake up. And behold your sacrifice. Because, a drop of blood will ask forgiveness for every sin you have committed. And read: 'Verily, my prayers, my worship - my victims - my life, and my death are to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. And for that I was ordered. And I am the ones who first surrendered to Allah, 'A friend then asked,' O Messenger of Allah, is this for you and your family specifically or for the Muslims in general? ' Rasulullah SAW replied, 'Even for Muslims in general'."
By KH. Ishomuddin (Lecturer at FAI Univ Darul Ulum Jombang)http://jombang.nu.or.id/apa-dan-bimana-kurban