In language, the meaning of 'vows' is a promise to do good or bad things. In Islam, Nazar means a person's ability to perform a form of worship which is not a compulsory form of worship. Nazar is not valid if it promises mandatory, permissible, makruh, let alone haram.
Practice with the law of the sunnah or fardhu kifayah which can be used as vows. For example fasting or giving alms. By performing vows, worship which initially has the sunnah or fardhu kifayah law becomes mandatory for that person. Almsgiving or sunnah fasting that previously should not be done, after becoming a vow, should not be abandoned.
Nazar will be valid if the vows contain certainty to do something. For example, "I vow to fast David", or "If I get a profit of Rp. 1 billion, I will give Rp. 100 million in charity". Lafaz which does not contain abilities cannot be called vows. For example, if the votive sentence still contains the word "maybe" or "could be".
Nazar Must Be Perfected
Islam allows us to make vows. Worship, which was not obligatory at first, becomes obligatory if someone has vowed. Allah praises those who fulfill their vows. Allah said, "And let them complete their vows." (QS.Al Hajj: 29). "They fulfill their vows and are afraid of a day where the punishment will be evenly distributed." (QS.Al Insan: 7).
In the past, Sahabat Umar bin Khatab was also ordered by the Prophet to fulfill his vows. When the Prophet's entourage returned from Taef and arrived at Ji'ronah, Umar bin Khattab said to the Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, in fact I had vowed during the time of ignorance to do itikaf a day at the Grand Mosque, what do you think?". Rasulullah replied, "Go there and give i'tikaflah".
Understanding Nazar Fast
summarizes that one of the practices that is usually insulted is fasting. Vowing to fast is permissible, because we can vow to obey God.
Nazar fast is a fast that must be done by someone according to what he is doing. Aisyah ra said that the Messenger of Allah said, "Whoever has the vow to obey Allah, let him obey Him and whoever vows to sin against Allah, then he should not sin against Him" (Narrated by Bukhari).
Kinds of Nazar
1. Nazar Lajjaj
Nazar Lajjaj is a vow whose purpose is to motivate someone to do something, or prevent someone from doing something, or to believe the truth of the news someone has conveyed. An example of lajjaj vows is when a person vows to fast for ten days if he does not memorize a book for five days. This Nazar is pronounced in order to motivate yourself to do practice (in this example, menghatkan book).
Another example is a vow that motivates something to do, when a person promises to fast for ten days if he makes a habit of talking about other people's badness. While examples of vows that aim to convince others about the truth of the news, for example when someone promises to give alms of Rp. 500,000 if what he says is not true. The hope is, people who receive the news believe the truth of the news it carries.
2. Nazar Tabarrur
Nazar tabarrur is when someone undertakes to perform a worship without depending on something, or depending on worship on something that is expected. An example is when someone vows to donate IDR 500,000. So if he already has such an amount of money, it is obligatory for him to donate the money. However, the obligation to donate it is broad, so it is not obligatory to immediately donate the money. If you do not have the belief that you will not have that amount of money, then the vows can be fulfilled at any time. On the other hand, if he believes that he will no longer have that much money, then the vows must be fulfilled, before the money is used for other purposes.
Another example of vows in tabarrur is one that is accompanied by depending on something that is hoped for. For example, when a person has a vow, he will fast for ten days if Allah grants his wish to meet the person he dreams of. If his wish is fulfilled, then it is obligatory for him to fulfill this vow.
Better Avoid Nazar
Even though Nazar is allowed, we should not easily take vows. Rasulullah explained that the real vows cannot reject something at all. The friend of Ibn Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah forbade vows, he said: 'Nazar cannot reject something at all. Nazar is only expelled from people who are hunks (stingy) '”(Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)
Meanwhile, Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet said, "Don't make vows. Because vows cannot reject fate in the slightest. Nazar is only expelled from a stingy person ”(Narrated by Muslim).
"Really vows do not make someone closer to what Allah does not ordain. The results of the vows are what Allah ordained. Nazar is only issued by a miser. The person who has a vow is taking out a treasure that he really doesn't want to spend. "(Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).
The scholars explained that the purpose of this hadith is that people who have vows are actually not doing sincere acts because of Allah. He only wants to do good if he gets benefits. Therefore, a person who vows on condition is called a stingy person.
Nazar which is permissible and not subject to conflict is when a person vows unconditionally. For example, someone promises to carry out a certain fast, without requiring anything. The prohibition of vows is also intended so that people do not think that Allah will fulfill their wishes with vows. In fact, vows do not change anything at all, as mentioned in the hadith above.